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Testosterone is the most important male sex hormone. It helps your body produce and maintain a healthy libido. Low levels of testosterone affect a man’s sex drive, physical features like muscle and bone strength, sense of well-being and attitude. Millions of American men have low testosterone and don't even know it. A fast and easy blood test is all that is needed to find out if you have Low T. Low Testosterone symptoms can be treated with hormone replacement therapy, usually testosterone injections, testosterone creams, testosterone gels or testosterone dermal patches.

This summary explains what testosterone does for the body. It also describes what happens if a man does not have enough testosterone. Included are diagnosis, treatment options and associated risks of low testosterone on a man's health. Testosterone affects women as well and many Endocrinologists, Age Management Doctors and Hormone Physicians prescribe Testosterone for women as a comprehensive part of an HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) program.

Testosterone is the hormone of desire for both men and women and optimal levels should be maintained for healthy personal and sexual relationships.

There are a number of medical conditions that can cause low testosterone. The next sections discusses a glossary of male hormone terminology including symptoms, causes and treatment of low testosterone in adult males.

Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids, are drugs that have similar effects to that of testosterone in the body. They increase protein within cells, especially in the muscles. Anabolic steroids have androgenic and virilizing properties including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and deep voice, testicles, bigger muscles and bones, and other male sexual characteristics like body hair.


Anastrozole also known as Arimidex® by AstraZeneca, is an estrogen blocking or aromatase-inhibiting drug approved for treatment of breast cancer and is also used by men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy to reduce estradiol and disrupt estrogen receptor sites. Anastrozole works by inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen as it binds the aromatase enzyme inhibiting the conversion of androgens to estrogens.


Androgen, also called androgenic hormone or testoid, is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics.


Testosterone (Androderm®) is a prescription drug that comes in a dermal patch that raises the amount of testosterone in a man's body when his body does not make enough natural testosterone. Testosterone is a male hormone produced in the testes. When insufficient levels are produced a health condition known as hypogonadism exists. Adroderm&teg; patches are used to treat hypogonadism or low testosterone in men.

Androgel ®

AndroGel®, a prescription testosterone therapy is a topical hormone gel that raises the amount of testosterone in a man's body when his body does not make enough natural testosterone. It works by replacing or supplementing the testosterone that is naturally made in the body. Testosterone is a naturally occurring male hormone necessary for mal health. The gel is normally applied to the torso, shoulders, stomach, arms or thighs. AndroGel® is used to treat conditions in men that result from a lack of natural testosterone, also known as hypogonadism.


Andropause is also known as male menopause, and sometimes called man-opause. Andropause is the stage in a man's life when symptoms and effects of aging in men appear which are similar to symptoms and effects of menopause in women. Andropause is a steady decline in the male hormone testosterone. This drop in testosterone levels leads to loss of sex drive, energy and concentration, depression, and mood swings. While andropause does not cause a man's reproductive system to stop working altogether as in menopause, many men experience soft erections and erectile dysfunction or impotence. During Andropause, a clinical health condition known as Hypogonadism or Low Testosterone normally occurs. For most men the loss of testosterone production is gradual and almost imperceptible until levels of testosterone are so low as to be cause symptoms. Hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency exists when the production of the hormones testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in middle-aged men either is below normal or has ceased. Andropause is characterized by lower than normal levels of testosterone in a man's system associated with a decrease in Leydig cells that produce testosterone, increasing SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) that reduces bio-available testosterone, impaired hormone receptor cells, and low LH or luteinizing hormone that normally induces testosterone production, resulting in a steady decline in testosterone levels with age.

The impact of low levels of testosterone include loss of libido, sexual potency, excess weight gain and belly fat, muscle and bone loss, irritability, nervousness, depression, impaired memory, inability to focus or concentrate, fatigue, insomnia, hot flushes, and night sweats. Andropause has been observed in association with Osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease.

Andropause is sometimes clinically referred to as Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male(ADAM), and Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (PADAM).


Androstenone is a steroid found in both male and female sweat and urine. Androstenone was the first mammalian pheromone to be identified.


A steroid androgen which is a precursor for testosterone.


A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the production of testosterone, as well as the estrogens - estrone and estradiol. Androstenedione is the common precursor of both male and female sex hormones and subsequently used to produce testosterone or estrogen depending upon the respective enzymes. Androstenedione has been shown to increase serum testosterone levels over an eight-hour period in men when taken as a single oral dose of 300 mg. Serum levels of estradiol also increased following the 300 mg dose producing estrogenic side effects. A testosterone supplement product known as Andro (androstenedione supplement) was banned by the FDA in 2004 because the drug had health risks commonly associated with steroids like depression and mood swings. Some of the side effects for men included breast development (Gynecomastia), behavioral and mood changes, male pattern baldness, and heart disease. Side effects for women included deeper voices, facial hair growth from excessive increases in their level of testosterone.


Anastrozole® is produced and sold under the name Arimidex® by AstraZeneca. Arimidex® is an aromatase-inhibiting drug (estrogen inhibiting drug) approved by the FDA for the treatment of breast cancer after surgery. It is also prescribed to help fight metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. Estrogen can increase the severity of breast cancer and Armidex® (Anastrozole) works by inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen in the body of both men and women. For this reason Arimidex may be used to inhibit estrogen synthesis in men who are taking testosterone as part of a Testosterone Replacement Therapy program. Anastrozole binds reversibly to the aromatase enzyme to inhibit the conversion of androgens to estrogens in surrounding tissues. This effectively allows men with Low T levels to benefit from increasing testosterone levels without converting excess androgens to estrogen in the body.


Aromatase is also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase. Aromatase is an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis or the productions of estrogens in the body. Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol, and converts androstenedione to estrone.

Aromatase Inhibitors

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. AIs are also used to treat or prevent gynaecomastia or growth of breast tissue in men. Aromatase is the enzyme that synthesizes estrogen. AIs are taken to either block the production of estrogen or block the action of estrogen on receptors.

Bioavailability of Testosterone

Testosterone is present in the blood circulation both in protein bound (96%) and in non-protein bound or free forms (4%). In men about 44% of the testoserone is bound to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) making it unavailable biologically for use by the body. About 50% of a man's testosterone is bound to albumin that could be potentially used biologically, and 2-3% is free or bioavailable for use by a man's body.

Bio-Identical Hormones

Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), bioidentical hormone therapy or natural hormone therapy, refers to hormones that are identical, on a molecular level, with endogenous hormones or hormones produced by the human body. Specific hormones used in BHRT include estrone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, HGH Human Growth Hormone and HCG among others.


Chrysin is a naturally occurring isoflavone chemically extracted from the plant Passiflora coerulea. European studies show that after supplementing with Chrysin, blood levels of testosterone are up to 30% higher than normal. Two of the major hormones in the body are testosterone and estrogen.Testosterone is anabolic and promotes muscle growth. Estrogen, on the other hand, is catabolic, and promotes the breakdown of muscle tissue. In other words, if you want to promote muscle growth, then a higher level of testosterone and lower level of estrogen will be beneficial. Unfortunately, your body naturally converts some testosterone into estrogen, a process which accelerates as testosterone levels go up. This also occurs to a greater extent in overweight or obese men. So, if you have large amounts of bodyfat, your body will naturally produce more estrogen. Chrysin stimulates muscle growth by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

Chrysin is generally considered to be safe, and no studies have reported any adverse side effects. Chrysin will accelerate muscle growth via elevated testosterone levels when combined with a programme of resistance exercise and a good diet that provides a sufficient number calories and high-quality protein.


Clomiphene Citrate, sometimes called Clomifene belongs to a class of medications known as Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators or SERM’s. Clomid may be used by men undergoing testosterone treatment in order to stimulate natural testosterone production and mitigate the conversion of testosterone to estrogen by the aromatase enzyme preventing estrogenic side effects. Clomid works biologically by preventing estrogen from binding to receptor cells by binding itself to the receptors in its place which can be very advantageous for men on a testosterone therapy program. Clomid stimulates the release of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH) which causes the production and release of testosterone throughout the man's body.


Cortisol is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal glands and is known as the stress hormone or flight-or-flight hormone. Cortisol is secreted by the adrenal gland especially in response to stressful or dangerous events. Temporary increases in cortisol levels have positive effects for the body as it provides a quick burst of energy, heightens the senses, increased immuno defense, desensitivity to pain, and maintaining homeostasis in the body until the body can return back to a normal, calm state. Cortisol is an essential hormone for responding and dealing with stress. Elevated or chronic cortisol levels, also known as adrenal fatigue can lead to adverse health problems. Over time higher than normal cortisol levels can lower the body's immune system, cause extreme fatigue, impede learning and memory, increase weight gain, raise blood pressure and bad cholesterol, cause heart disease and depression.


Danazol is a derivative of the synthetic steroid ethisterone, a modified progesterone, also known as 17-alpha-ethinyl testosterone. Before becoming available as a generic drug, danazol was marketed as Danocrine. Danazol has the effect of reducing Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) to help increase bioavailable or free testosterone circulating in a man's body.

Dehydroepiandrosterone - DHEA

DHEA is also known as androstenolone - an important endogenous steroid hormone. It is the most abundant circulating steroid in the human body instrumental in the biosynthesis or production of androgen (testosterone) and estrogen sex steroids.


Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone (5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one) as well as 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one, is a sex steroid and androgen hormone. The enzyme 5α-reductase synthesizes DHT in the prostate, testes, hair follicles, and adrenal glands. This enzyme reduces the 4,5 double-bond of the hormone testosterone. In men, approximately 5% of testosterone undergoes 5α-reduction to form the more potent androgen, DHT dihydrotestosterone. DHT has two to three times greater androgen receptor affinity than testosterone and has 15-30 times greater affinity than adrenal androgens. The dissociation rate of testosterone from the receptor is five-fold faster than DHT. During embryogenesis DHT has an essential role in the formation of the male external genitalia, while in the adult DHT acts as the primary androgen in the prostate and in hair follicles.


Endocrinology is a medical specialty that deals with diagnosing and treating disorders and diseases of the endocrine system and the related hormones. Endocrinology is the science concerned with the study of hormones - the chemistry, biosynthesis, biochemical and physiological functions of the endocrine glands, hormones, hormone receptors, the cells of the endocrine glands, glandular structures and tissues that produce and secrete them. An Endocrinologist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating endocrine conditions and disorders.

Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

Soft Erections or No Erections. An erection problem occurs when a man is unable to get or sustain an erection that is firm enough for long enough in order to engage in sexual intercourse. Many men with ED or erectile dysfunction are unable to get an erection at all or lose the erection during intercourse prematurely. Some men also experience continual premature ejaculation. When the condition occurs on a common bases, it is called erectile dysfunction or impotence. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is male sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance and may be treated with PDE5 inhibitor drugs such as sildenafil, Cialis® or Viagra® and if due to a testosterone deficiency, with male hormone replacement therapy.

Estradiol, Estrogen (Estrace, Alora, Vagifem)

Treats hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause or low amounts of estrogen. Estradiol also known as E2 or 17β-estradiol, also oestradiol is a female sex hormone. Estradiol is abbreviated as E2 because it has two hydroxyl groups in its molecular structure. Estrone has one hydroxyl group (E1) and estriol has three hydroxyl groups (E3). Estradiol is about 10 times as potent as estrone and about 80 times as potent as estriol in its estrogenic or feminizing effects. Except during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, Estradiol serum levels are somewhat higher than that of estrone during the reproductive years of women. It is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. During menopause, estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. Estradiol is also present in males, being produced as an active metabolic product of testosterone. The serum levels of estradiol in males (14 - 55 pg/mL) are roughly comparable to those of postmenopausal women (greater than 35 pg/mL). Estradiol has a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, and also affects other organs including the bones. In both sexes, testosterone is converted by aromatization to estradiol. In particular, fat cells are active precursors to estradiol, and will continue to be even after menopause. Estradiol is also produced in the brain and in arterial walls.


Estrogens or Oestrogens, are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are the primary female sex hormones. Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol at the receptor level. The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. After menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone by peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. To date, two estrogen receptors have been identified. These vary in proportion from tissue to tissue. Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.


Estrone is also known as E1, and also oestrone and is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary as well as adipose tissue. Estrone is known to be a carcinogen for human females as well as cause breast tenderness or pain, nausea, headache, hypertension, and leg cramps. In men, estrone has been known to cause anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and erectile dysfunction. Estrone is relevant because of its conversion to estrone sulfate, a long-lived derivative. Estrone sulfate acts as a reservoir that can be converted as needed to the more active estradiol. It is the predominant estrogen in postmenopausal women.

Free Testosterone

Only about 1-2% of testosterone in the male body is unbound, bioavailable or "free testosterone" and therefore, biologically active and able to enter a cell and activate its receptor. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) inhibits the function of sex hormones making the bioavailability of sex hormones like the testosterone steroid hormone influenced by the level of SHBG.


FSH stands for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone is released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, FSH stimulates the hormone estradiol and the production of eggs during the first half of the menstrual cycle. In men, FSH stimulates the production of sperm.


Gynecomastia is the enlargement of breast tissue in males. Half or more of adolescent boys have some breast development during puberty. Gynecomastia may arise as an abnormal condition associated with disease or metabolic disorders, as a side-effect of medication, or as a result of the natural increase of estrogen and decrease of testosterone production in older males. When on testosterone replacement therapy, men normally take estrogen inhibitors or estrogen blockers so that aromatization of testosterone to estrogen is prevented. Gynecomastia is the growth of abnormally large breasts in males due to excess breast tissue, not excess fatty tissue.


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. HCG is the hormone is produced by women's bodies when they become pregnant to enusre proper use of energy and calories.


Human Growth Hormone - HGH, produced by the pituitary gland is responsible for growth of bones, muscles, organs and tissues in children and adolescents. Human Growth Hormone is the

  • master hormone
  • that helps to regulate other hormones, body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, temperature, sleep patterns, mood, sugar and fat metabolism, immuno, liver, and heart function. HGH or Somatropin for Injection is a prescription drug available by pharmacies and supplements in natural vitamin shops and over the Internet. Synthetic HGH injections (injectable human growth hormone) was developed in 1985 and approved by the FDA for specific uses in children and adults. In children, HGH injections (Somatropin for Injection) are FDA-approved for treating short stature due to poor growth as a consequence of Turner's syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder causing poor muscle tone, low levels of sex hormones, and a feeling of hunger; chronic kidney insufficiency; HGH deficiency, and infants small for gestational age. In adult men and women, FDA-approved uses of HGH include Short bowel syndrome, Adult HGH deficiency due to pituitary defects, dysfunction or tumor; muscle-wasting disease associated with HIV/AIDS. Some men and women use human growth hormone along with other athletic performance-enhancing drugs, anabolic steroids, to build muscle, treat Osteoporosis. The body's HGH levels naturally decrease with age and many antiaging medical doctors offer natural or bio-identical HGH hormone products that treat an HGH deficiency, and help to prevent and/or reverse age-related health problems.


    Hormone Replacement Therapy - HRT is the restoration of lost or low hormone levels in children and adults experiencing adverse health conditions due to a hormonal deficiency or imbalance. HRT is normally prescribed by Endocrinologists, Urologists and Hormone Treatment Physicians. These medical professionals use natural or bio-identical hormones to treat hormonal imbalance or deficiency in men and women suffering from endocrine or age related health problems. The most common endocrine conditions occur during menopause and andropause affecting the the more important hormones HGH Human Growth Hormone, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone, Thyroid, DHEA, Oxytocin, Insulin, Melatonin and others.


    Hormones are chemical messengers released by glands, cells or organs in one part of the body that sends signals to and affects other cells, tissues and organs in the body. Only a small amount of hormone secretion is required to alter a cell's metabolism. Endocrine hormones circulate in the bloodstream and seek out receptor cells. A specific receptor cell responds to a specific hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor cell protein resulting in a cell type-specific response. Endocrine hormone molecules are secreted directly into the bloodstream, whereas paracrine hormones diffuse through the tissues.


    Hypogonadism is a medical term used to describe low testosterone production or diminished functional activity of the gonads in males and females. Low androgen or testosterone levels are referred to as hypoandrogenism. Other hormones produced by the gonads which may be decreased by hypogonadism include progesterone, DHEA, activin, and inhibin. Spermatogenesis in men and ovulation in women may be impaired by hypogonadism. In men hypogonadism usually occurs during the stage of a man's life known as Andropause and testosterone replacement may be required to restore low testosterone levels. The current popular term for hypogonadism is Low T and the various products produced to treat clinical hypogonadism are being referred to as Low T Treatments or Low T Therapy Options.


    Male impotence is characterized by a man unable to engage in sexual intercourse because of inability to have and maintain an erection. A diagnosis for erectile dysfunction is usually made when the condition is chronic and the inability to attain or sustain an erection for the performance of a sexual act becomes frequent. In some cases, very soft erections which inhibit intercourse may also be included in the definition of impotence.

    Leydig Cells

    Leydig cells are testosterone producing cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in a man's testicles. They produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH). Leydig cells release a full class of androgen hormones (steroids). They secrete testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) when stimulated by the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH). LH increases cholesterol desmolase activity which is an enzyme associated with the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is used for testosterone synthesis and secretion by Leydig cells. Prolactin (PRL) increases the response of Leydig cells to LH by increasing the number of LH receptors expressed on Leydig cells.

    LH - Luteinizing Hormone

    LH stimulates testosterone secretion by the testes.

    Low T

    Low Testosterone Levels, also known as hypogonadism.

    Low Testosterone Therapy

    Male Enhancement

    Male enhancement is a term that refers to treatments that enhance penis size, sexual performance or fertility. Some male enhancement therapies include ED or Erectile Dysfunction Therapy, increasing semen quality and production, providing for firmer or longer erections and increasing response, sensitivity and sexual desire. Effective male enhancement products help stimulate increased blood flow to the penis and lend nutrients that improve the male reproductive system increasing overall libido and sexual health.

    Male Menopause

    The stage in a man's life characterized by low testosterone levels or androgen deficiency also known as Andropause.


    An acronym for the Male Menopause or Andropause characterized by low testosterone levels and symptoms in men.


    At about the age of 50, the menstrual cycle stops in women, this is known as menopause, but menopause is not caused by the pituitary not releas­ing LH or FSH, in fact a woman releases LH or FSH for their entire life but the ovaries stop responding. Post­menopausal woman can have high levels of LH and FSH because they no longer have the negative feed­back loop of the ovaries functioning to tell the pituitary when to stop releasing these hormones.


    Methyltestosterone with the brand names Android, Testred, and Virilon are anabolic steroids used to treat men with a testosterone deficiency. Methyltestosterone bears a close chemical similarity to testosterone, but has a methyl group in order to increase oral bioavailability.

    Nandrolone Decanoate

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is an anabolic steroid commonly sold as a decanoate ester known as Deca-Durabolin and in a phenylpropionate ester form known as Durabolin. Nandrolone decanoate is used in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and for treating anemia. The drug effects include muscle growth, appetite stimulation, increased red blood cell production, and increased bone density.

    Nolvadex (Tamoxifen)

    This estrogen inhibiting or reducing drug is used as a treatment for breast cancer. It is also used by men on testosterone or androgen replacement therapy to treat Gynocomastia or the development of male breasts. Nolvadex o Tamoxifen effectively blocks the estrogen receptors of the breast tissue thereby inhibiting tissue growth. Nolvadex is referred Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator or SERM, estrogen inhibitor or anti-estrogen.

    Normal Testosterone Levels

    Male: 300 - 1,000 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter); Female: 15 - 70 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories as they use different low testosterone testing methods.


    Fewer sperm count than normal versus Azospermia meaning no sperm at all.

    Progesterone (Prometrium, Prochieve)

    Helps hormonal balance in menopausal women to prevent changes in the uterus, and in women who are taking estrogen after menopause - menopausal hormone therapy. Progesterone is also used to treat amenorrhea or menstrual periods paucity in women who are still menstruating. Progesterone helps prepare a women's body for conception and pregnancy, and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle. It plays a primary role along with estrogen in preparing and maintaining the uterus for pregnancy. The hormone progesterone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta if a woman gets pregnant, and in the adrenal glands. Progesterone also plays a role in creating sexual desire. Excessive progesterone levels can cause PMS premenstrual syndrome, breast tenderness, bloating and mood swings. Combined high levels of estrogen and progesterone are used in birth control to suppress ovulation and some Progestogen only treatments also used in birth control. Progesterone also serves the purpose of producing milk-producing glands in a women's breast during her pregnancy.

    SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones in the body making them unavailable for use by the body; androgens in men and estrogens in women. After age 30, most men begin to experience a natural and gradual decline in testosterone levels until levels are low enought o cause symptoms. This can result in reduced sex drive, performance and libido, moodiness, insomnia, a slow loss of muscle tone and definition and excess fatty tissue. Most of the testosterone found in men is bound to the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) and the Albumin, the remainder, only 2−3% of the testosterone present circulating in the body is in a free or bioavailable state.


    Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rHGH) is a protein that is produced to be nearly identical or Bio-Identical to the form of the naturally occurring human growth hormone secreted in the human body. HGH or somatropin for injection in a hormone that can stimulate tissue and bone growth, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. Human Growth Hormone or Somatropin is used for adults with AGHD (Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency) in HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) and for pediatric patients whose growth is stunted resulting in a short stature cuased by a growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, idiopathic short stature and for children small for their gestational age.


    A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four cycloalkane rings joined to one another. The most well known steroid compounds are the sex hormones Estradiol and Testosterone, the sterol lipid Cholesterol, Progesterone - a principal steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle and pregnancy, plant derived phytosterols and anabolic steroids used for performance enhancement.


    Sustanon made by Organon is a well known form of injectable testosterone comprised of various esterized testosterones and prescribed for male hormone replacement therapy.


    Testosterone Replacement Therapy or Testosterone Replacement Treatment


    Nolvadex (Tamoxifen) belongs to the SERM class of medications to block estrogen from binding with receptor cells and stimulate LH and FSH. Nolva®, however is 8 times stronger than Clomid (Clomiphene).

    Testosterone Cypionate

    Testosterone Injection used for HRT and prescribed by doctors for Testosterone Replacement Therapy to treat hypogonadism. Intramuscular injection, contains Testosterone Cypionate, USP which is the oil-soluble 17 (beta)- cyclopentylpropionate ester of the androgenic hormone testosterone. Testosterone Cypionate, USP is a white or creamy white crystalline powder, odorless or nearly so and stable in air. It is insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, dioxane, ether, and soluble in vegetable oils.

    Testosterone Enanthate

    Testosterone Injection used for HRT and prescribed by physicians for Testosterone Replacement Therapy to treat hypogonadism. Testosterone Enanthate Description Testosterone Enanthate Injection, USP provides Enanthate, USP a derivative of the primary endogenous androgen testosterone, for intramuscular administration. In their active form, androgens have a 17-beta-hydroxy group. Esterification of the 17-beta-hydroxy group increases the duration of action of testosterone; hydrolysis to free testosterone occurs in vivo. Each mL of sterile, colorless to pale yellow solution provides 200 mg Testosterone Enanthate, USP in Sesame Oil, USP with 5 mg Chlorobutanol, USP (chloral derivative) as a preservative.

    Testosterone Propionate

    Testosterone Injection used for HRT. A testosterone hormone with the Propionate ester attached carries a half-life of approximately 4 days and is generally the shortest ester attached to any testosterone hormone. Propionate

    Testosterone Dermal Patch

    Testosterone skin patches contain the prescription drug testosterone that comes in an adhesive dermal patch that raises the amount of testosterone in a man's body when his body does not make enough natural testosterone. Testosterone is a male hormone produced in the testes. When insufficient levels are produced a health condition known as hypogonadism exists. Transdermal patches are used to treat hypogonadism or low testosterone in men.


    Testosterone (Testoderm®) is a prescription drug that comes in a dermal patch that raises the amount of testosterone in a man's body when his body does not make enough natural testosterone. Testosterone is a male hormone produced in the testes. When insufficient levels are produced a health condition known as hypogonadism exists. Testoderm&teg; patches are used to treat hypogonadism or low testosterone in men.


    Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Paddock Testosterone

    Each mL of the Testosterone solution contains Testosterone Cypionate, 200 mg; Benzyl Benzoate, 0.2 mL; Cottonseed Oil, 560 mg; Benzyl Alcohol as preservative, 9.45 mg. Paddock brand has an extra 0.45 mg of Benzyl Alcohol per ml than Watson Testosterone.

    Pfizer Depo-Testosterone

    Popular testosterone cypionate for injection produced by Pfizer for testosterone treatment. Cypionate is an esterized form of testosterone steroid injection.

    Sandoz Testosterone

    Popular testosterone enanthate for injection to treat hypogonadism and hormone deficiency. Enanthate is an esterized form of testosterone steroid injection. Endo Pharmaceautical produces both Aveed and Delatestryl Enanthate Testosterone injections.

    Watson Testosterone

    Popular testosterone cypionate for injection. to treat hypogonadism and hormone deficiency.


    Striant® is a testosterone buccal adhesive gum system designed to adhere to the gum or inner cheek. It provides a controlled and sustained release of testosterone through the buccal mucosa as the buccal system gradually hydrates. Insertion of Striant® buccal gum testosterone twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, provides continuous systemic delivery of testosterone.


    Popular testosterone patch for transdermal application.


    Popular testosterone cream for topical application.


    Testofen® is a fenugreek natural herbal extract for boosting low testosterone levels. Testofen® is the branded name for a fenugreek extract testosterone boosting supplement. Fenugreek is an herb that contains over 100 phytochemicals including Furostanol Saponins and Steroidal Saponins.

    Herbal supplements and amino acids have been shown to boost testosterone levels, HGH levels and increase libido, lean muscle mass and immuno functions. Holistic hormone replacement therapy programs make use of testosterone boosting supplement.


    Popular testosterone implantable pellets for hormone replacement.

    Viagra ® (Sildenafil)

    Viagra (sildenafil) is a product prescribed by Urologists for men's sexual health. It relaxes penile muscles and increases blood flow to specific areas of the body. It also increases the blood pressure lowering effects of nitrates like isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil), isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur, Ismo, Monoket), and nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur, Transderm-Nitro) that are used primarily for treating angina. Viagra is in a class of medications called phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors as are Levitra and Cialis. These inhibitors are used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Viagra comes as an oral tablet and patients taking sildenafil to treat erectile dysfunction, take it as needed an from 4 hours to 30 minutes before sexual activity.


    A pharmaceutical drug that has been shown to reduce SHBG in a man's body to allow for more free testosterone or bioavailable testosterone. A similar drug is Proviron.

    Types of Steroid Injections and Hormone Drugs


    Albuterol is an effective steroid for fat-burning and muscle gains. It also has a shorter half-life than some similar compounds, such as Clenbuterol. Albuterol was developed for use as a bronchodilator and is found in some treatments for asthma and bronchitis.


    Andriol developed by Organon Pharmaceatical is an oral testosterone product and anabolic steroid. This steroid compound contains 40 mg of testosterone undecanoate, based in oil (oleic acid) and sealed inside a capsule. Testosterone undecanoate or testosterone undecylate is an ester of the testosterone hormone. This hormone is used in androgen replacement therapy primarily for the treatment of male hypogonadism. Andriol is a prescription testosterone therapy option in tablet or pill form. Comprised of testosterone with the undecanoate ester, Andriol was one of the first oral forms of testosterone replacement therapy.


    Anadrol 50, is a steroid also referred to as A50 used to treat anemic health conditions. Anadrol is a powerful steroid that produces weight gains in a very short time and in high doses is highly toxic in the liver with some side effects such as water retention, headaches and bloating. Anadrol 50 is the brand name for Oxymetholone produced by Syntex which is a very potent oral androgen. Like many anabolic androgenic steroids, Oxymetholone is reliable in its ability to increase red blood cell production.


    EPO or Erythropoietin is a performance enhancing drug that increases blood oxygen and increased athletic performance. EPO was formulated to increase an athlethe's speed, endurance, strength, and stamina. It accomplishes this by raising the red blood cell count in the body. The results from increasing the oxygen in the blood have a dramatic affect on exercise and aerobic capacity, body metabolism, increased body weight and energy efficiency. EPO is taken as an injection and lasts from three to six months.


    AVEED manufactured by Endo Pharmaceuticals is a long-acting depot form testosterone injection. The AVEED testosterone undecanoate injection CIII is a testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of hypogonadism. It is prescribed by endocrine specialists and urologists to treat men with hypogonadism, or low testosterone (Low T). AVEED was recently approved by the FDA and is now available as a treatment option for men diagnosed with low testosterone.


    Clenbuterol or Clen is prescribed by physicians as a sympathomimetic amine used by patients with breathing disorders as a decongestant and bronchodilator. Clen also acts as an effective slimming agent and is commonly used during a cutting cycle. It can be used alone or with other slimming agents that work synergistically. Taking Clenbuterol is not as straightforward as taking other medicaitons and anabolic steroids. It needs to be pyramided up in dose slowly to prevent receptor down-regulation. The dose can be titrated up over an extended period, or an "off" period can be undertaken, so that receptors stay fresh and Clenbuterol does not become uneffective. Bodybuilders use Clenbuterol because it promotes glycogenesis, fat oxidation and thermogenesis.

    Equipoise (Boldenone undecylenate)

    Boldenone undecylenate or Equipoise 300 is an injectable steroid for intramuscular use. Equipoise is a steroid compound and derivative of testosterone that provides steady muscular gains similar to Dianabol or Deca Durabolin. With less water-retention and bloating than other anabolic steroid compounds, it is relatively safe with few side effects caused by aromatization of testosterone hormone steroid conversion into estrogen. Many bodybuilders, athletes and weighlifters use Equipoise with testosterone as Equipoise’s long-lasting ester exhibits strong anabolic and androgenic affects which complements testosterone during a steroid cycle. The undecylenate ester extends the long-acting activity of the steroid drug. This compound has the ability for increasing red blood cell production and may be prescribed by physicians for treating anemic health conditions

    Nandrolone Anabolic Steroid Injection

    Nandrolone, 19-nortestosterone is an anabolic steroid used for therapy. Nandrolone is a steroid decanoate ester sold under the brand names Deca-Durabolin or Deca, Eubolin, Durabolin nandrolone phenylpropionate. It is a very popular anaolic used by bodybuilders and weight lifters. Physicians prescribe it to treat anemia caused by kidney failure.

    Proviron Schering-Plow

    Proviron is the brand name for the steroid Mesterolone and is used by both men and women for hormone therapy. Proviron is not capable of forming estrogen. Mesterolone is an orally active, 1-methylated DHT. Proviron is similar to Masteron, but delivered in an oral fashion. DHT is the conversion product of testosterone at the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme, the result being a hormone that is 3 to 4 times as androgenic.


    Omnadren is a prescription testosterone steroid drug formulation that is comprised of a combination of four different-estered testosterones. This is similar to Sustanon that is also a combination of estered testosterones to prolong the steroid drug action and absorption in the body. Like other forms of the androgen testosterone, Omnadren has a high anabolic and androgenic response in the body and produces increased muscle mass. Side effects of over-usage include acne, oily skin, hair loss and aggressive behavior. Omnadren possess long-lasting esters and should be used with anti-estrogen and estrogen blocking drugs such as Armidex, Anastrozole, Clomid, Proviron or Nolvadex to prevent aromatization or conversion to estrogen in the body. Omnadren 250 is an oil-based testosterone injectable containing a blend of four different testosterone esters: Testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and caproate.

    Stanozolol Anabolic Steroid Drug

    Stanozolol is also known by the brand name Winstrol or Winstrol Depot. Stanozolol is a synthetic anabolic steroid drug derived from dihydrotestosterone - DHT. It was developed by Winthrop Laboratories and approved by the FDA for treatment. It is similar to the steroid testosterone and prescribed by doctors for the treatment of angioedema.

    Sustanon 250 Multiple Testosterone Steroid

    Sustanon 250 is an important and popular anabolic steroid. This form of injectable testosterone has become so popular for testosterone treatments and anabolic steroid cycles. This steroid preparation contains four testosterone esters per mL. Short-acting testosterone propionate, 60 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg of testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg of testosterone decanoate. The short-acting testosterone propionate gives Sustanon a quick onset of action and the other esters are medium to long-acting testosterones to prolong steroid absorption in the bloodstream. Usual Sustanon prescription dosages are 250mg per week providing a high level of testosterone replacement therapy. Patients with low testosterone see an improvement while patients with mid-normal natural testosterone will see only a mild added therapeutic effect at this dosage level. Physicians may prescribe 500mg per week to increase the effects of a treatment program along with ancillary drugs like HCG injections and estrogen inhibitors to control aromatization to estrogen. Sustanon injections are suppressive of the hypothalamus and pituitary secretion at the 250mg dosage and will shut down endogenous or natural testosterone production while being injected.

    Synthroid (Synthro)

    Synthroid also known as Levothyroxine is prescribed by Endocrinologists to treat thyroid conditions or hypothyroidism. Its function in the body is to help in the metabolism of fat into protein and energy. It is considered a fat burner that increases metabolism, and some use it as a performance enhancing drug. Synthroid is used before contests to give the user an extra lean look. In athletic competition many weighlifters and bodybuilders use Synthroid before a contest to get a leaner look. Synthroid works well with HGH (Human Growth Hormone) for treatment purposes.

    Testosterone Suspension

    Testosterone Suspension is the oldest steroid developed in its basic form. Suspension is a pure testosterone without any long-acting ester attached to it. With no ester attached, the testosterone won't last very long in the body and will need to be injected daily, and in some cases multiple times a day. When taking pure testosterone the user gets precisely the dosage of testosterone that the vial states is there. Testosterone suspension pure is the most potent anabolic androgenic substance available.

    Trenbolone Enanthate

    Trenbolone Enanthate 200 has potent androgenic and anabolic action, and is therefore very popular among athletes, bodybuilders and weighlifters and considered an ideal drug for building solid muscle and burning body fat. Trenbolone users usually take one injection per week. Its anabolic effect is five times greater than that of normal testosterone rapidly building up strength and muscle mass with the advantage of not converting to estrogen or aromatization which makes it free from side effects like gynocomastia, water-retention and bloating. The anabolic effects of Trenbolone are comparable to testosterone and Dianabol.

    Signs of low testosterone in adult men may include:

    • Decreased sex drive or libido
    • No or poor erections of the penis (called impotence or erectile dysfunction).
    • Lowered sperm count
    • Rapid weight gain
    • Extreme fatigue
    • Loss of lean muscle
    • Depression and moodiness
    • Increased breast size or loose muscles

    Some men with low testosterone have hot flashes, increased irritability, inability to concentrate and depression. Men with severely low testosterone may lose body hair and muscle mass. Their bones may be more prone to fracture. Their testes may become smaller and softer.

    Low testosterone can cause erectile dysfunction. However, diseases of the nerves and blood vessels can also affect the penis and cause erectile dysfunction.

    Causes Associated with Low Testosterone

    Low levels of testosterone are linked with aging. Diseases of the glands that produce and control testosterone also cause low levels.

    As a man ages, his body makes less testosterone. A lower level of testosterone in older men is sometimes called “andropause.”

    As men age it is normal for them to have less interest in sex. However, it is abnormal for a man to have absolutely no interest in sex. This could be caused by significantly low levels of testosterone.

    Damage to the cells of the testes can cause low testosterone. This kind of damage can be a result of

    • Accidents
    • Inflammation of the testicles
    • Testicular cancer
    • Radiation therapy or chemotherapy used
      to treat testicular cancer

    Diseases that affect the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands can cause low testosterone. These include cancer, inflammation and autoimmune diseases of either gland. Certain drugs can affect the way the pituitary gland works and cause low testosterone. Morphine and anabolic steroids are two examples.

    Certain genetic diseases cause low testosterone. Abnormalities in chromosomes, the genetic materials of the body, cause genetic diseases. For example, myotonic dystrophy causes testicular failure between the ages of 30 and 40.

    It is normal for men to have less interest in sex, as they get older. It is also normal for older men to have less spontaneous erections.

    Low T Diagnosis

    Men with less sex drive, erectile dysfunction, reduced sperm count, decrease in muscle size, extreme weight gain, fatigue, depression or other signs of low testosterone should have a blood test to find out their testosterone level.

    Normal testosterone levels are 300 to 1,200 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl). Testosterone levels are usually highest early in the morning. Doctors often measure it at that time.

    The doctor’s main concern is to find out if there is a disease causing low testosterone. If not, it may be an extreme case of low testosterone due to aging.

    It is not always easy to diagnose the cause of low testosterone. You can help your doctor by providing a detailed and accurate medical history. To get your medical history, the doctor will ask about:

    • Your past or present illnesses
    • All prescription and nonprescription drugs you are taking
    • Any sexual problems you are having
    • Recent events that may have caused you stress

    Your doctor may request a bone density test. Low testosterone levels can make the bones more brittle. CT Scan If the doctor thinks there may be a tumor in the pituitary or hypothalamus, he or she may need to take a picture of your brain. This is done with a CT scan or MRI. CTs and MRIs are painless. CT scans use x-rays and MRI uses a strong magnetic field. MRI is usually better at showing pituitary or hypothalamic tumors.

    If the doctor suspects a genetic cause of low testosterone, he or she may request a genetic test. This is a process to examine a person’s DNA. It shows whether the person is at risk of passing a genetic condition to his or her descendants. If the doctor diagnoses a tumor, inflammation, or genetic disease that is causing low testosterone, it is best to get treatment. Sometimes a specialist is needed for treatment. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended to make up for low levels of testosterone.

    More Testosterone Topics

    • What causes testosterone deficiency?
    • What are the symptoms of testosterone deficiency or LOW T
    • What changes occur in the body due to testosterone deficiency?
    • How do I find out if I have a testosterone deficiency?
    • How is testosterone deficiency treated
    • What is the cost of testosterone programs?
    • Where do I find a good testosterone doctor or clinic?
    • Where can I get testosterone treatment online?
    • Who shouldn't take testosterone replacement therapy?
    • What are the side effects of testosterone replacement therapy?



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    Testosterone Therapy Medical Team

    Dr. George Ibraheim

    Dr George Ibraheim

    Dr. John Wolf

    Dr John Wolf

    Rose Zegarra, PA-C

    Rose Zegarra

    Testosterones Therapies for Men

    • Pfizer Depo-Testosterone Therapy
    • Watson Testosterone Therapy
    • Paddock Testosterone Therapy
    • Sandoz Testosterone Therapy
    • Testosterone Cypionate Therapy
    • Testosterone Enanthate Therapy
    • Testosterone Propionate Therapy
    • Testosterone Estradiol Therapy
    • Testosterone Isocaproate Therapy
    • Testosterone Decanoate Therapy
    • Testosterone Undecanoate Therapy
    • Testosterone Phenylpropionate Therapy
    • Testosterone Methyltestosterone Therapy
    • Testred® Android, Methitest Therapy
    • Testrex® Enanthate Therapy
    • Testovis® Propionate Therapy
    • Testoviron® Propionate Therapy
    • Aveed® Testosterone Injection
    • Aveed® Undecanoate Injections
    • Delatestryl® Enanthate Injections
    • Endo Pharma Testosterone Therapies
    • AndroDerm® Actavis Patch
    • AndroGel® AbbVie Topical
    • Androfil® Cipla Enanthate Caps
    • Andriol Testocaps® Oral TRT
    • Axiron® Eli Lilly Androgel
    • Testoderm® Alza Dermal Patch
    • Testim® Auxilium Androgen Gel
    • Striant® Actient Columbia Labs
    • Testopel® Slate / Barter Pharma
    • Fortesta® Endo Pharma Androgen Gel
    • Metandren® / MethylTestosterone
    • Natesto® / Oreto® Nasal TRT
    • Nuvir® Enanthate Organon
    • Omnadren Sustanon® Jelfa
    • Sustanon® Injections Organon
    • Sustrone® Enanthate Taj Pharma
    • Testred® Testosterone Pills
    • Testanon® Infar Pharma
    • Testolent T-Phenylpropionate
    • Testanova® Neiss Labs
    • Virilon® / Vogelxo®
    • Cernos Sun Pharmaceutical Testosterone
    • Depo Testosterones (Steroid Depot)
    • Depo-Testadiol Cypionate Blend
    • Depo Testosterone Cypionate Injectable
    • Ditate-DS Estradiol Cypionate Blend
    • West-Ward Cypionate Testosterones
    • West-Ward Enanthate Testosterones
    • Tri-Blend Testosterones (Multi-Blend)